Saturday, July 18, 2015
Plantain: Indigenous Food and Medicine
Most modern popular literature about the low growing herb we often call plantain tends to focus on Plantago major (which is deemed to be of European origins), while ignoring the many species which are endemic to North America. In this on-going endeavor to completely erase the native species from our minds, the claim is often set forth that the Indigenous People learned to use plantain from the colonists and settlers.
In an effort to set the record straight, I have collected a little information on just a few of the indigenous plantains to share with you, along with a few of their traditional tribal uses. There are actually very many native plantains found in North America, as well as in other parts of the world. Plantago major is by no means the beginning and ending of the plantain story. Hopefully this small collection of information will inspire some of you to do some research on the native plantains found in your areas or from your own homelands. From there, you can search out how your own ancestors or the original inhabitants of your area used the plantains found near where you live. More research, even on the Plantago species listed below will turn up a wealth of information not included here.
“Plantain has been consumed as human food since prehistory. For example, archaeological recovery along California's Central Coast has demonstrated use of this species as a food since the Millingstone Horizon.” 1. The Millingstone Horizon is an archaeological period in California, USA dated from 6500 to 1500 BC. 2.
The following information is based on a search of on-line documents, and is not based on my experience with any of the species discussed. My purpose in undertaking this little project was to expand the discussion on the medicinal and edible Plantago species of North America, and to encourage interested persons to do further research. Before using any unfamiliar plant for any purpose one must be very sure of their identification, and they must be knowledgeable about possible toxic look-a-likes in their area. Before ingesting or otherwise using any unfamiliar plants, double checking identification with a knowledgeable person who has long been in the habit of using them for your intended purpose is not only wise, it may save your life. Don’t depend only on information on websites and in books to determine what use for food or medicine. Be careful!
Selected North American native Plantago species:
This indigenous plantain was primarily found in or near wetlands in the mid-west, great lakes, Appalachian, and East Coast areas of the US and up into Canada. This lovely large Plantago was an important food and medicine plant of the Indigenous people wherever it was found. It is currently a sought after ornamental plant for wetland type gardens. It has become rare, threatened, endangered or absent throughout much of its former range. It is sensitive to the loss and degradation of habitat, grazing, and climate change.
“A discussion of the ethnobotany and economic uses of P. cordata, long reputed as a medicinal plant, is provided by Tessene (1969).” “Tessene, M. 1969. Systematic and ecological studies on Plantago cordata. Mich. Bot. 8: 72-104”
Wyandot medicinal use of this plant: Howard’s Domestic Medicine. http://books.google.com/books?id=m9kSAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA836&lpg=PA836&dq=Plantago+cordata+/+Medicinal&source=bl&ots=-MYC68dunP&sig=5KN1BNUir8VrQohUJG7mcFkp74&hl=en&sa=X&ei=p_SiU9O1FpLgoASJxYKIDw&ved=0CE4Q6AEwDA#v=onepage&q=Plantago%20cordata%20%2F%20Medicinal&f=false
“This species is of special significance because of its traditional use as a medicinal plant by native peoples of eastern North America.” http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2013/ec/CW69-14-143-2002-eng.pdf
“ . . . the plant is edible and the best tasting of all the Missouri plantains.” http://www.missouriplants.com/Others/Plantago_cordata_page.html
(Also see the sources shared directly below under “Medicinal.”)
“Heart-leaved Plantain has also been collected for use as food and as a medicinal herb (Tessene 1969, NatureServe 2006, Moerman 1998, Steyermark 1963), including in Canada (Jalava et al. 2009).” http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/stdprodconsume/groups/lr/@mnr/@species/documents/document/stdprod_075578.pdf
“In addition to being edible, it reportedly cures a wide range of ailments from snakebites to congested swellings and low scrofulous ulcers.” http://www.plantdelights.com/Plantago-cordata-for-sale/Buy-Water-Plantain/#sthash.Pf79UFWQ.dpuf
Is one of the smaller statured indigenous plantains that you might miss if you don’t know what you are looking for. It is endemic to coastal and cool temperature areas of the US and it is wide spread throughout Canada, where it is relished as a tasty wild edible.
Alaska Native food eaten fresh or cooked and canned for winter use, from: Heller, Christine A. 1953, Edible and Poisonous Plants of Alaska. University of Alaska (p. 45) http://herb.umd.umich.edu/herb/search.pl?searchstring=Plantago+maritima
Check the index in the book, “Ancient Pathways, Ancestral Knowledge,” by Nancy Turner, who covers uses of this plant. The book may be available, when released, in the reference section of your local or university library. http://www.amazon.com/Ancient-Pathways-Ancestral-Knowledge-Mcgill-Queens/dp/0773543805/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1404152839&sr=1-1-fkmr0&keywords=%22Ancient+Pathways%2C+Ancestral+Knowledge%2C%E2%80%9D+by++Nancy+Turner
“ . . . young leaves are cooked as a spring green and occasionally sold in markets . . .”
Young leaves raw or cooked, seeds as flour extender:
It appears this plant is primarily used as a food rather than a medicine by both Indigenous people and settlers and their descendants. No information on medicinal uses was found.
Of small to medium stature compared to other indigenous plantains, it sports fuzzy leaves, is adapted to a variety of climate zones, and was much used as a medicinal and cultural plant.
“Used by Indians in making soup.” From Wild Flowers of California http://books.google.com/books?id=x8EYAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA113&lpg=PA113&dq=Plantago+eriopoda+/+uses&source=bl&ots=sLRHR4kxdD&sig=AfWduVcSJbJvobLqk1M-At8p0Ss&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9iCjU9WOJcTpoATjhYLoAQ&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=Plantago%20eriopoda%20%2F%20uses&f=false
“. . . Plantago patagonia is the basis for a boy’s game called horse race. Boys would place bets and run as fast as they could for a certain amount of time in search of the longest flowering stem for this Plantago. After the set amount of time had passed, the boy with the longest stem won and collected the bets.”
Also: “A number of infrequent and several common plant Species on the Kiowa National Grassland have potentially important plant biochemicals. Among the plant genera on our checklist with such a potential are: . . . Plantago . . . and others.”
Sixteen different ethnobotany uses (including medicinal) by various tribes listed here: http://herb.umd.umich.edu/herb/search.pl?searchstring=Plantago+patagonica
This plant does not seem to have been adopted into non-Native medicinal or edible usage.
Rugel's plantain is native to much of the Central, Southern, Eastern and Northern areas of the US and it extends its territory up into the North Eastern areas of Canada. It is often confused with Plantago major, to the extent that many photos of Plantago major are actually Plantago rugelii. Fortunately, it seems that they can be used interchangeably as food and medicine—which is a good thing, because it there is a lot of that, apparently, going on. In many areas Plantago rugelii has larger populations and is more wide spread than the P. major of “White man’s foot” infamy. In fact, this indigenous plant seems to have followed those foot prints across the country, it can now be found in many areas beyond its original range. Check the link for Photos directly below to learn how to tell these plants apart.
Search on “Plantago rudelii” at the following link for Menominee medicinal uses: http://herb.umd.umich.edu/
Medicinal use by Native people of the Miami and Potawatomi Peoples, page 50: http://www.csu.edu/cerc/researchreports/documents/AnEthnobotanyIndianaDunesNationalLakeshoreVolume2.pdf
“The young leaves are palatable and can be eaten raw or cooked.” http://eattheplanet.org/archives/1868
”Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds. A poultice of the fresh leaves is used to treat burns and inflammations.”
Of Interest to Gardeners and Farmers, P. rugelii extract has been found to be toxic to root knot nematodes. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2586708/
Its use as a dye material is documented here:
Slightly fuzzy medium sized to small species endemic through a wide area of the continental US. There are only eight states where it is not found, including a few each of the Northern, Desert, and Central States. It is generally classified as a winter annual. It grows during the cool moist season, sets seeds to grow the following year, and expires in summer’s heat.
“The Kiowa tribe has used this plant in ceremonial garlands to confer health on the elders during dances.” https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/plantago/virginica/
Traditional Native uses are included in, ‘Baboquivari Mountain Plants: Identification, Ecology, and Ethnobotany,’ By Daniel F. Austin; this book may be available in the reference section of your local or university library. http://www.amazon.com/Baboquivari-Mountain-Plants-Identification-Ethnobotany/dp/0816528373
“Though P. virginica has a hairy texture raw it yields readily when cooked and is a soft pleasant green.” http://www.eattheweeds.com/newsletter-7-january-2014/
“The leaves are reputed of superior efficacy on poisoned wounds and boils, and give promise of being a valuable nervine.” The quote is found under the entry for Plantago virginica at the following page: http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/cook/PLANTAGO_MAJOR.htm
White Man’s Footprint?
The historical basis for the moniker, “White Man’s Foot,” being attributed to some plantains probably stems from the Latin roots of the botanical name for this group of plants--Plantago. Plantago comes from “Planta,” which in Latin means “sole of the foot” and “ago” which is a suffix that means “sort of.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago
Another interpretation of the Latin can be found all over the Internet, “Plantago: from Latin planta meaning "foot print." One example: http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=PLAMED
A very few descendants of North American tribal people, and possibly even some tribes, have adopted this common name (or some derivative) for Plantago major—English plantain. We see, however, by the botanical name that European people have long associated the Plantago species with their own feet or footprints. It is unlikely that very many Indigenous people would have come up with this name on their own, since they were using native Plantago species for long before they adopted the English language or had contact with English speaking people. It is further very unlikely that very many Indigenous persons would have needed to learn uses of plantain from settlers, as Plantago species were wide spread and commonly used throughout North America prior to contact. Please see the short entry below, as an example.
Navajo Names for Plantain:
hastoi ci-ye'r--old man's queue: . . . Plantago argyrea
bi'hi-lja'?-deer's ears: . . . Plantago major
?alii: be'yi.c'oI:-urine spurter (diuretic): . . . Plantago major
If you are patient you could also find Navajo uses at this page:
Note: All the tribes that use the plantains have names for the plants in their own languages. Check with your Tribal Language Department or Language Specialist to find resources that may help find the traditional names for the plantains used in your area. University ethnobotany collections are also a good source of information.
Sources cited in introduction:
1. Quote: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago>.
2. Millingstone Horizon: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millingstone_Horizon>.
If you find typos, broken links, or layout problems--please feel free to leave a comment. I will fix them as soon as I can.
If you use any of the native plantains for food, medicine, or utility—and it isn’t closely guarded tribal intellectual property—please feel free to share.